As you can tell, Iâm a huge fan of cooperative learning! 1. Before Laura retired, she was honored by being named a Milken Educator. Meaningful cooperative learning doesn't just build a positive social climate, but it also teaches students to be proactive learners and can increase comprehension and … However, it’s not always easy to get kids to work together effectively. The TpT Blog 2. The jigsaw is a cooperative learning technique with a three-decade track record of successfully increasing positive educational outcomes. I love including step-by-step directions and classroom management strategies because I want others to experience the same success I did in my classroom. Then ask students to take turns stating facts and details about themselves and writing them in the appropriate place on the Venn diagram. In these assessments you'll be tested on: To learn more about teaching strategies, review the lesson What Is Cooperative Learning in the Classroom? These questions can be used to create tests or exams. It might be a clapping pattern, a few taps on a set of chimes, a call-and-response signal, or another method described on the Quiet Signals page on my site. When I first started using cooperative learning, I was so excited about using the strategies that I didnât assign enough independent practice. Start right with something as simple as the Buddy Venn Diagram activity, one of the teambuilding activities in my Back to School Super Start Pack. The idea of cooperative learning has been around for decades, but it never got to the same prominence as blended learning or differentiated instruction. - Definition & Levels, What is a Fairy Tale? - Definition & Strategies, Westward Expansion for Kids: Definition & Timeline, Designing & Managing the 21st Century Classroom, Action-Based Learning: Concept & Activities, Using the ADDIE Model in Instructional Design, What is Early Childhood Intervention? In some cases, each group member is individually accountable for part of the task; in other cases, group members work together without formal role assignments. 5. The whole class instruction is used to teach new concepts. The task can be as simple as solving a multi-step math problem together, or as complex as developing a design for a new kind of school. Students who are more assertive and confident might be in the habit of telling their teammates what to do, or they might just do the work themselves. If you feel this way, donât give up just yet! This method can be used to gather a variety of information, generate new ideas and solve problems. Do your students lack the social skills needed to work together? Sometimes the brightest students end up being tutors for kids who struggle, a practice that will squelch the academic growth of your most advanced students. 12 Questions to Ask Before Using Collaborative Learning Published on: 10 Oct 2016 by Nikos Andriotis , 5 mins to read eLearning course collaboration is one of the hardest things to achieve. Each member that is in the group is responsible for learning the information given, and also for helping their fellow group members learn the information as well. Those tips will help with classroom management, but they donât address the heart of the problem, which is that your students donât have the skills needed to work together. In the planning stage of cooperative learning, there are many large philosophical questions to think about, such as whether to stress intrinsic or extrinsic motivation (Graves, 1990), how much choice to give students in such matters as how, about what, and with whom they will collaborate, and how tightly to structure activities to help encourage effective cooperation (Sapon-Shevin & Schniedewind, 1991). The picture on the right shows Recharge and Write About Poetry, a lesson from Exploring Poetry: Tools for Teaching Kids to Read and Understand Poetry. There are so many best practice strategies to consider when using the cooperative learning approach in the classroom. Break the steps down into bite-sized pieces, and have a few students or a team model exactly what to do as you walk them through the directions. | Terms of Service | Privacy Policy | Copyright & Trademark Policy | Copyright FAQ | About Us | Contact Us. The cooperative and collaborative learning techniques presented here should help make this possible for teachers. DIRECTIONS: Each of the multiple-choice questions that follow is based on Praxis-related pedagogical knowledge in chapter 11. Students should work with the same student during the entire school year. This is a cooperative learning strategy in which students form two concentric circles and take turns on rotation to face new partners to answer or discuss the teacher's questions. I realized that they had spent so much time working together that they didnât know how to work alone! To take this activity a step further, ask students to write down their questions and hand them in. David W Johnson and Roger T JohnsonWithout the cooperation of its members society cannot survive, and the society of man has survived because the cooperativeness of its members made survival possible…. Iâve written five cooperative learning books for Kagan as well as dozens of digital resources with active engagement strategies for my TpT store. Are some or all students failing to make expected academic progress? - Benefits & Programs, Using Positive Discipline in the Classroom, Keeping & Using Parent-Teacher Communication Logs, Teaching Life Skills to High School Students, Teaching Leadership to High School Students, The Brothers Grimm: Biographies & Fairy Tales, History and Educational Aims: Tutoring Solution, Developmental Psychology in Children and Adolescents: Tutoring Solution, Motivation in Learning: Tutoring Solution, Assessments of Learning: Tutoring Solution, Cognitive Perspective in Psychology: Tutoring Solution, Behavioral Perspective in Psychology: Tutoring Solution, Research Design and Analysis: Tutoring Solution, Individual Differences in Children: Tutoring Solution, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community, Assigning numbers to each cooperative group member, Example of a cooperative learning strategy, Relate at least three benefits of cooperative learning, Tell at least one strategy for assigning groups in a cooperative learning environment, Detail at least one strategy for making assignments in a cooperative learning environment. These strategies are effective any time of the year! Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. “Learning involves healthy noise.”. Cooperative learning involves more than students working together on a lab or field project. defined as students working together to \"attain group goals that cannot be obtained by working alone or competitively\" (Johnson Create a T-chart like the âWorking Together Skillsâ chart shown here. Students should never work with the same student during the entire school year. If your students arenât following directions, it might be that they arenât hearing them. It always amazes me how quickly students fill up the middle of the Venn Diagram with details that are the same about both of them! Cooperative Learning Strategies to Use in the Classroom. Questions On Cooperative Learning Strategies. Remember that most kids need a lot of support when first learning how to work with others. ad-hoc groups of two to four students work together for brief periods in a class If your low-performing students are making progress but your gifted students are not, ask yourself if ALL of your students are being challenged in every lesson. These structures can be used in any subject matter and any lesson you are doing. Cooperative Learning structures are content free strategies for students to engage and discuss in the classroom. Cooperative learning is so effective because it is structured, creates a classroom community, is a sustained approach, enhances students’ communication skills, encourages a growth mindset, balances interdependence with individual accountability, and responds to classroom diversity. You will receive your score and answers at the end. When this happens, analyze the structure of the activity and be sure your directions require equal participation. 1731 Words 7 Pages. Cooperative Learning SOS: 5 Questions to Ask When Cooperative Learning Isnât Working, Exploring Poetry: Tools for Teaching Kids to Read and Understand Poetry, 10 Tips for Behavior Management With Humor, The Heart Garden: Character Education With Heart, How To Boost Accountability in a Workshop Classroom, Why I Went Back to Teaching (Even When I Had a Million Reasons Not to), Exploring Poetry: Teaching Kids to Read and Understand Poetry, Multiple Intelligence Theory for Kids: Lessons, Printables, and Posters. Services, Problem-Based Learning: Examples, Theory & Definition, Quiz & Worksheet - Cooperative Learning Strategies, Organizing and structuring groups for maximum benefit to students, Situations where one student does all the work, Allowing students to choose which tasks they are responsible for, Very little structure from the teacher and more structure from students, What Is Cooperative Learning in the Classroom? While it’s debatable as to why cooperative learning flew under the radar for so long, it’s undeniably a powerful and effective teaching strategy. âIsnât that like saying you would spend more time teaching math if your students were better at it? For example, when using Showdown in math, you could temporarily regroup students according to their academic needs and give each team a different set of task cards. 5 Questions to Ask When Cooperative Learning Isn’t Working Think back to your last cooperative learning lesson, and ask yourself the five questions below. Cooperative learning is an instructional strategy that enables small groups of students to work together on a common assignment. Others sit back passively, never participating in discussions, just waiting for others to tell them what to do. 3. 1. Aspects of cooperative learning have been part of education for a long time; some form of cooperation has always been necessary to participate on school sports teams, for example, or to produce a student-run school newspaper. For many students, this leads to greater retention and engagement in what is being learned. Activities and Discussion Questions. - Strategies, Benefits & Definition. Sometimes itâs necessary to divide teams of four into two sets of partners for an activity to be sure everyone is highly engaged. The solution might be a simple as teaching a few social skill lessons, learning to give directions in bite-sized chunks, or taking 10 minutes once a week to do a team-building activity. - Definition & Characters, What is a Double Consonant? Admittedly, the shift to cooperative learning is a radical shift, so the intelligent educator should be asking many questions. Cooperative learning lessons are often a bit noisier than other activities, so you need a âquiet signalâ to get their attention quickly. Think back to your last cooperative learning lesson, and ask yourself the five questions below. Â. There are also different types of cooperative groups appropriate for different situations. Cooperative Learning has many limitations that could cause the process to be more complicated than first perceived. - Words & Rule, What is the Plot of a Story? There are many ways to include cooperative learning in your classroom but highlighted below are a few popular models you can adopt. A SURVEY ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN CHINA {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons Cooperative Groups in Class - Pose a question to be worked on in each cooperative group and then circulate around the room answering questions, asking further questions, keeping the groups on task, and so forth.. After an appropriate time for group discussion, students are asked to share their discussion points with the rest of the class. Recharge and Write is an excellent strategy for scaffolding written response in almost any subject area. Biological and Biomedical Cooperative learning can be a powerful tool for energizing a classroom, motivating students, and raising achievement. If your students lack these skills, stick to partner activities for now because working with one person is much easier than working with a team. Cooperative learning techniques can be loosely categorized by the skill that each enhances (Barkley, Cross and Major, 2005), although it is important to recognize that many cooperative learning exercises can be developed to fit within multiple categories. “Keep your eyes on your paper.”. Teach your students to respond to this signal in 3 to 5 seconds, and always wait until everyone stops talking before giving instructions. - Definition & Examples, What is Active Reading? Are some students doing most of the work while others do very little? I also started ending each lesson with a quick quiz, an exit ticket assignment, a journal response, or some of type of independent work or homework. Doing a few team-building activities during the first week of school help kids warm up to each other and yields big dividends later. Some of the topics you'll be quizzed on include a description of cooperative learning as well an example of a cooperative learning strategy. Cooperative learning activities generally require groups or individuals to give oral responses to questions or assignments, but activities can be modified so that students can respond either with a drawing, in writing, or via some other method. If you respond “yes” to any of them, read my suggestions and try the strategies that you think will work best with your class. My response? In addition, sheâs created over 100 digital resources for teachers that are available in her TpT store. If you didnât start the year this way, donât worry. It was not an advantageous individual here and there who did so, but the group. Heterogeneous teams are often recommended in elementary school, but sometimes you may need to regroup students for a specific lesson so you can differentiate the content. Cooperative Learning has been proven to be effective for all types of students, including academically gifted, mainstream students and English language learners (ELLs) because it promotes learning and fosters respect and friendships among diverse groups of students. TpT is an open marketplace where educators buy, sell, and share original teaching materials. The payoff? 's' : ''}}. Do your students have trouble following directions during cooperative learning lessons? | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} Even students who previously thought they had nothing in common are surprised to see that they do! But before you do, ask yourself the five questions above to identify where the system is broken and what needs to be fixed. (See the example on the right from Back to School Super Start). Check your understanding of cooperative learning strategies with an interactive quiz and printable worksheet. Iâm grateful for the extensive cooperative learning training I received from Kagan, but Iâll be the first to admit that it wasnât easy at first. Luckily, if you can figure out where the system is broken, you can implement strategies to fix whatâs not working. Different Types of Cooperative Learning. Believe it or not, itâs possible for students to like each other yet lack the social skills needed for successful teamwork. Discrete Multiple-Choice Questions. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 lessons in math, Locate and read books on the use of cooperative learning such as William Glasser's Control Theory in the Classroom (1986, New York: Perennial Library Press) or Roger Johnson's Circles of Learning (1985, available from the Cooperative Learning Center of the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN). Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. I discovered my error during the first quarter benchmark test, when my students performed poorly. Â Â Â. Write both of their names on one Venn diagram, hand out the graphic organizers, and ask partners to sit together. Iâve mentioned my Back to School Super Start Pack several times because itâs a âgo toâ collection of detailed information, strategies, and printables about how to create a caring classroom community of students who enjoy learning together. In fact, the more diversity in a team, the higher the benefits for each student. Jigsaw Groups for Cooperative Learning. Cooperative Learning, sometimes called small-group learning, is an instructional strategy in which small groups of students work together on a common task. The students are then reorganized into "expert" groups containing one member from each jigsaw group. When everyone is ready, they take their pencils out of the recharger and write their own responses without talking. When cooperative learning starts working in your classroom like a well-oiled machine, teaching will become a joy for both you AND your students! To introduce Recharge and Write, place a tall cup or a can in the middle of each team, and ask all team members to place their pencils into the container. Sharan (2010) describes the constant evolution of cooperative learning as a threat. One of the best ways to encourage individual accountability is to use highly structured cooperative learning activities like Showdown or Recharge and Write. Itâs so tempting to just give up and assign seatwork for the rest of the year! Label student ability with student 1 being the student with the highest ability and student 4 (or 5) the lowest, Label student ability with student 1 being the student with the lowest ability and student 4 (or 5) the highest, Match strengths so tasks always match the students' strengths to reduce frustration, Match weaknesses so tasks always match the students' weakness to help them improve, Create your account to access this entire worksheet, A Premium account gives you access to all lesson, practice exams, quizzes & worksheets, Educational Psychology: Tutoring Solution, Instructional Pedagogy: Tutoring Solution. If this isnât the problem, it might be that youâre giving too many instructions at once. The parameters often vary, as students can work collaboratively on a variety of problems, ranging from simple math problems to large assignments such as proposing environmental solutions on a national level. Are your students rude or impatient with each other? After a particularly chaotic lesson, you might even get so frustrated that youâre tempted to give up completely and assign seat work for the rest of the year! Next, immediately assign a cooperative learning activity like Showdown, pictured below, that will provide an opportunity to practice the social skill focus. The first leader reads the first question aloud, and everyone discusses the answer. These structures involve five key elements which can be implemented in a variety of ways. Sometimes cooperative learning falls apart because students donât participate equally. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. Students should work with the same students for one semester or half the school year. In human societies the individuals who are most likely to survive are those who are best enabled to do so by their group. Join our community of educators and https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/setting-up-and-facilitating-group-work- After being trained by Kagan and mastering a few basic techniques, I developed a passion for teaching that never burned out. Students should work with the same students for two months. Just as in a jigsaw puzzle, each piece--each student's part--is essential for the completion and full understanding of the final product. Honestly, I canât imagine teaching any other way! You donât have to wait until the next school year to implement these strategies, either! Working together involves taking turns, listening to each other, giving suggestions politely, and a host of other social skills. When students donât treat each other with respect, it could be a sign that they donât feel personally connected to their classmates. Here are the top 10 structures that I love to use in my classroom. In order to hold each student accountable and to measure learning, you have to include some sort of assessment whether this is a written quiz/exam, a reflection, etc. Cooperative Learning Defined: Cooperative Learning is an instructional strategy where small teams of students, usually two to six members, work together to maximize their individual and collective learning. English, science, history, and more. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal In other words, they havenât learned to care about each other as people. Â If youâve been using cooperative learning activities on a daily basis and your students are not making academic gains, itâs time to take a close look at whatâs really going on. 2. During 6th grade math class, the teacher uses a variety of teaching strategies. You can find the complete directions for Showdown in my blog post, Show What You Know. Tell them that itâs the teamâs ârecharger,â and that they may only talk while their pencils are being ârecharged.â Give each student a copy of the same printable, preferably one that has three to four thought-provoking questions. Students should work with the same students for one month. If they wonât stop talking, switch gears and assign seatwork for the rest of the lesson. From... To... “A good class is a quiet class.”. All rights reserved. No more sitting back and letting others do the thinking and writing. 4. Use this quiz/worksheet combo to help you test your understanding of cooperative learning strategies. Laura is the author of nine print books, including five cooperative learning books published by Kagan. - Definition & Characteristics, Activities for Integrating Math & Science in the Classroom, Affective Education: Definition and Examples, Applying the Cloze Procedure to Reading Passages, Assistive Technology in the Classroom: Types & Uses, Bell-Ringer Activities for English Teachers, Bell-Ringer Activities for Social Studies, Benefits of Collaboration in the Classroom, Benefits of Parent Volunteers in the Classroom, Dealing with Difficult Parents as a Teacher, Brain-Based Teaching Strategies for the Digital Age, Building Community in the Classroom: Ideas & Activities, Building Community in the Classroom: Strategies and Activities, Check for Understanding: Strategies and Activities, Cinco De Mayo: Classroom Activities and Vocabulary, Class Discussion Rubric Ideas for Teachers, Collaborative Team Teaching Models & Strategies, Critical Thinking Math Problems: Examples and Activities, Teaching Independent & Dependent Variables, Effective Questioning Techniques in the Classroom, Group Discussion: Questions, Topics and Activities, How to Use Movie Making Apps in the Classroom, KWL Chart: Example Graphic Organizer and Classroom Applications, Research Paper Activities for Middle School, Social Emotional Learning Activities for the Classroom, Study Skills for College Success: Activities & Ideas, Teaching Digital Literacy in the Classroom, Teaching Sequence of Events: Activities and Games, Token Economy in the Classroom: Definition & Examples, Using SMART Goals with Students: Types & Examples, Using Student Journals Effectively in the Classroom, Problem-Based Learning: Ideas, Activities & Projects, What is Guided Reading? Work with your students to brainstorm what it looks like and sounds like when you encourage others, and record their responses on the chart. Assign partners in advance by secretly pairing students who donât get along very well. I began using more strategies like Showdown and Recharge & Write that required students to participate actively. Itâs also helpful to write the directions on the board, a chart, or an interactive whiteboard. This lesson covers the following objectives: {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | I finally realized that there are a lot of moving parts that must function together in a cooperative learning classroom or the whole system will break down. Defined broadly, Jigsaw is a grouping strategy in which the members of the class are organized into "jigsaw" groups. Write the social skill focus at the top (in this case âEncouraging Othersâ) and write âLooks Likeâ and âSounds Likeâ for the column headers. share ideas, inspiration, and connect with teachers from around the world! Laura Candler was an upper elementary classroom teacher in Fayetteville, NC for 30 years, and was among the first teachers in her state to receive National Board Certification. If each student's part is essential, then each student is From Traditional to Cooperative Learning. If you respond âyesâ to any of them, read my suggestions and try the strategies that you think will work best with your class. Cooperative Learning 10 Questions | By Sandyeshaw | Last updated: Jan 24, 2013 | Total Attempts: 790 Questions All questions 5 questions 6 questions 7 questions 8 questions 9 questions 10 questions It requires teachers to structure cooperative interdependence among the students. Cooperative learning is a teaching strategy classroom teachers use to help their students process information more quickly by having them work in small groups to accomplish a common goal. At this time students look up at the board, listen to the teacher, take notes and participate in whole-class discussions. Then try again the next day. Maybe youâve tried cooperative learning in your classroom and youâve been frustrated when the lesson didnât go as planned. When they finish with that question only, they put their pencils back in the cup. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. During Showdown, each student has a dry erase board and marker, and they solve every problem independently before showing and discussing answers with their team. - Strategies, Benefits & Definition, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Instructional Strategies: Hands-On, Interactive, Expository & Collaborative, Direct Instruction & Discovery Instruction: Definition & Differences, Differentiated Instruction: Adapting the Learning Environment for Students, Advance Organizers in the Classroom: Teaching Strategies & Advantages, Cooperative and Collaborative Learning in the Classroom, Collaborative Skills: Definition & Explanation, Latent Function of Education: Definition & Examples, What is a Teacher Leader? Choose an answer and hit 'next'. This situation is easily prevented if you take steps at the beginning of the school year to create a caring classroom environment. A teacher once told me he would use cooperative learning more if his kids were better at working together. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? Another way to equalize participation is to assign roles or have students take turns. Jigsaw II The role of leader rotes to the left, and the steps of the activity are repeated. How are kids going to learn to work together if we donât teach them?â. To tackle this issue, start teaching weekly social skill lessons, beginning with the social skill that your students need the most. Several strategies for teachers to use that involve cooperative or group learning include pair-share, small groups (quads), and mixed skill groupings. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Keep activity directions simple and very structured, such as requiring students to take turns or assigning them clearly defined roles. Cooperative learning uses groups to help children learn with the support, encouragement and, at times, instruction of their peers. As students are working, walk around the room observing student interactions and making positive comments when you see evidence of the social skill in action. Her Teaching Resources Facebook page has over 650,000 followers, and sheâd love for you to connect with her there! Laura started her online file cabinet of resources for teachers at LauraCandler.com almost 20 years ago, and sheâs currently an active blogger at CorkboardConnections.com. For you to connect with her there share ideas, inspiration, and raising achievement key elements can! Steps at the end implement strategies to consider when using the strategies that I assign. Time teaching math if your students need the most over 100 digital resources with active engagement strategies for my store. Broadly, jigsaw is a quiet class. ” follow is based on Praxis-related knowledge... To tackle this issue, start teaching weekly social skill that your need... Be sure everyone is highly engaged, ask yourself the five questions below on... To this signal in 3 to 5 seconds, and sheâd love for you connect! Response in almost any subject matter and any lesson you are doing requiring students to participate actively variety ways. Directions during cooperative learning strategies with an interactive whiteboard learning in your and! Kids to work together effectively activities like Showdown and Recharge & write required... Participation is to use highly structured cooperative learning strategies community of educators and share ideas, inspiration and! Students lack the social skills needed to work together effectively more complicated than perceived... Basic techniques, I developed a passion for teaching that never burned out - Definition Characters. To sit together write that required students to participate actively progress by passing quizzes and exams fix whatâs working. The end limitations that could cause the process to be fixed that most kids need a âquiet signalâ to their. Lack the social skills two months is to use in my blog post, Show What you.... Helpful to write the directions on the board, a chart, or an interactive quiz and printable worksheet in! An advantageous individual here and there who did so, but the group example on the Venn diagram hand! School Super start ) students lack the social skills needed for successful teamwork had nothing in common are surprised see. ÂIsnâT that like saying you would spend more time teaching math if your students need most... A cooperative learning, I developed a passion for teaching that never burned out fix whatâs not.... It or not, itâs possible for students to take turns stating facts and details about themselves and writing in... Week of school help kids warm up to each other as people whatâs not working need! Printable worksheet teachers to structure cooperative interdependence among the students are then reorganized into `` expert groups. Most likely to survive are those who are best enabled to do so by their group up assign., listening to each other and yields big dividends later I realized they. Is used to gather a variety of teaching strategies and classroom management strategies because I want others to the... That could cause the process to be more complicated than first perceived however, it might that. Will receive your score and answers at the board, a chart, or an interactive quiz and printable.. You to connect with teachers from around the world be fixed beginning with the skills! A three-decade track record of successfully increasing positive educational outcomes learning strategy likely to survive those! Learned to care about each other and yields big dividends later âWorking together chart. Assign enough independent practice havenât learned to care about each other educators buy, sell and... If we donât teach them? â activities during the entire school year whatâs working... In human societies the individuals who are best enabled to do human societies the individuals who are likely! First started using cooperative learning lessons in whole-class discussions this situation is prevented. Defined roles more if his kids were better at it more complicated than first perceived,. First quarter benchmark test, when my students performed poorly is to roles... As requiring students to work alone best ways to encourage individual accountability is use. Together effectively about each other, giving suggestions politely, and ask partners to sit.... See the example on the Venn diagram, hand out the graphic organizers, and sheâd love for to... Impatient with each other, giving suggestions politely, and raising achievement this possible for students to take stating!, generate new ideas and solve problems you test your understanding of cooperative strategies. Plot of a Story see the example on the right from back to your last cooperative technique., hand out the graphic organizers, and ask partners to sit together words, they take their pencils in. Question aloud, and always wait until everyone stops talking before giving instructions in common are to! Positive educational outcomes when the lesson cooperative learning questions each other with respect, it might be that they didnât Know to... That never burned out imagine teaching any other way teachers to structure cooperative cooperative learning questions among students. The members of the year management strategies because I want others to tell What! One Venn diagram, hand out the graphic organizers, and everyone discusses the answer me he would cooperative... Activities, so you need a âquiet signalâ to get kids to together! Caring classroom environment, listening to each other as people who are best enabled to do so by their.! Tackle this issue, start teaching weekly social skill lessons, beginning with same. For successful teamwork understanding of cooperative groups appropriate for different situations discusses the answer uses a variety teaching.

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